More Civil War Artifacts
Rubberized ponchos were usually issued to the cavalry, while infantry troops received India rubber blankets. Either could double as a waterproof tent in rainy weather by stringing rope through the grommets around the perimeter. This poncho, worn by William Prickett of the 150th Illinois Volunteer Infantry, may have been constructed in the field from a blanket. It measures approximately half the size of a standard issue poncho or blanket. Standard issue ponchos had a slit in the center for slipping the poncho over one’s head, while this example has a rough-sewn neck strap on one edge.
William Prickett’s parents were both southerners who moved to Edwardsville, Illinois, before he was born. The 28-year-old William worked as a sand agent when he enlisted with the 150th Illinois Infantry for one year in 1865. He mustered out as a major and returned to Edwardsville, where he became a banker and a state legislator. William served as mayor of Edwardsville for 1895-1897.
This three-section wooden frame and metal mesh cot with cast iron brackets measures 72″ long x 29″ wide when it is unfolded to the reclining position as shown. Although the origin of this specific example is unknown, it was probably used by an officer. (Enlisted men were lucky to find a plank of wood to sleep on to keep them out of the mud.) Hughes, Chapin, and/or Prickett may have had a similar cot.
Civil War soldiers needed firearms and ammunition, they needed to stay warm and dry, and they needed a place to sleep. They also needed to shave. This small hand mirror with a swiveling wooden cover could easily slip into a soldier’s pocket. Isham Benson Gillham used this example during his service as a private with Company C of the 10th Missouri Volunteer Infantry. The 20-year-old Isham lived in St. Clair County (Illinois) when he enlisted. After tragically losing his first wife in childbirth, Isham eventually remarried and settled in Madison County, where he raised his first daughter Lucy and her six half-siblings.
Ideas for Teachers (or anyone who wants to take a deeper dive into the artifacts)
Some relevant essential questions for students to explore:
- What impact did military leadership have on the conduct of the war?
- How are people affected by war?
Possible classroom activities:
- Discuss how the disparity between the conveniences enjoyed by officers versus enlisted men may have affected morale during the war.
- Make a list of everything a soldier needed to carry in order to survive in the field.
Sources for this article include United States federal decennial census records, newspapers (notably the Edwardsville Intelligencer), and the following additional sources:
- Illinois State Archives. Illinois Civil War Muster and Descriptive Rolls (database). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://www.cyberdriveillinois.com/departments/archives/databases/datcivil.html
- [Nicolaides, Martha Jane.] “The Gillham Family.” Madison County Historical Society document.
- Portrait and Biographical Record of Madison County, Illinois. Chicago: Biographical Publishing Company, 1894. Available at the Madison County Archival Library. Also available online at the HathiTrust Digital Library at https://hdl.handle.net/2027/loc.ark:/13960/t0gt5wg1t